Launching the 2019 field season in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Our most important field season to date
Posted on: June 3, 2019
Author: Metta McGarvey and Stephen Brown
Each spring since 2002 Manomet’s Shorebird Recovery Program has run research expeditions in the Arctic, but rarely have our plans been as ambitious as this year with 3 projects underway in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
Our first project is to conduct a population survey of shorebirds in the entire 1002 Area by helicopter. This is the long-disputed area along the coastal plain of the Arctic Refuge that was opened to oil and gas exploration and potential development this past year. Passage of the legislation that opened this area means that environmental reviews of potential impacts are beginning. When we started our work in the Arctic Refuge in 2002 we knew good data would be essential to an environmental review process that we thought would likely come some day. With that day now here, we’ll be working closely with our partners to gather important updated baseline data on shorebirds and be able to compare it with our earlier data to document trends and designate the most important sites for breeding shorebirds before any oil and gas exploration occurs.
Our surveys in the Arctic Refuge are part of a project we helped initiate in 2000 called PRISM (the Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring). The goal of PRISM is to systematically survey shorebird habitats across the entire North American Arctic every 20 years to measure population status and trend. Our upcoming expedition will measure shorebird population change, determine population trends, and enable us to better understand the current status of shorebirds in this important area. Shorebirds are the most populous and among the most threatened groups of birds in this part of Alaska. Data from high-quality habitat surveys prior to development will aid our efforts to ensure that any impacts from impending development include mitigation to replace lost habitat functions that may result from future industrial development.
Having even one project in the Arctic is a huge job, but given the urgency of impending oil and gas development, we added a new project this season as well, expanding our work to measure nest success across the entire 1002 Area, which has never been attempted on this scale before. Past measurements of nest success have been done by finding nests within walking distance of a camp, and the results have been extrapolated over large areas because the logistics of gathering more data have been too expensive. However, faced with the need to document potential impacts of oil development, we have worked hard with our partners and supporters to raise the funds for additional helicopter time this year to gather more precise data for nesting success.
We know that predator populations often increase with development because of human impacts like additional food sources and increased denning areas for foxes, and we know from our previous research that increased predator populations will reduce nesting success. We will be using cutting edge nest temperature trackers—tiny devices that measure the temperature in a nest and can tell if it is destroyed by a predator—along with cameras to identify predators, to monitor nests across a large section of the most important shorebird breeding habitat in the 1002 Area of the Arctic Refuge. Our work will establish baselines for nest success prior to any future industrial development, and document current natural conditions for nest success so that potential impacts can be mitigated.
Our third project continues our work using cutting edge tracking technology to learn more about habitats that are critical for shorebirds after the nesting season, as they prepare for their long southbound migrations. In past years we have focused on deploying trackers on Semipalmated Sandpipers, Dunlin, and Buff-breasted Sandpipers; this year we will be adding American Golden-Plovers and Red Phalaropes.
We are very grateful to our partners from the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and our supporters including the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and individual donors to Manomet’s shorebird program, who make this work possible.